CI and Oncology

Immune Check point proteins and Immunosupressive Drugs 

Melanoma: Nivolumab, and Ipilimumab
  • Side effects: Autoimmune Disease: Rash, pruritis, Liver toxicity, 
  • PFK
Renal cell cancer
Advanced Urothelial Cancer
Head and neck cancer 

PDL1, CCS4, Treg, IFN , IL 2, Ipilimumab,

Previously: IFN Alpha-2b, IL-2, BCG

IFN for solid tumors
IFN for Melanoma

Activated T cell secrete it.
Stimulates LAKs (Lymphocyte-Lymphokines-activated Killer Cells)

Cancer takes advantage of the ability to hide from the immune system by explotting a series of immune escape mechanisms that were developed to avoid autoimmunity. Among these mechanisms are the hijacking of immune-cell intrinsic checkpoints that are induced on T-cell activation.  CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4) is one of such check point. 

Ipilimumab is an antibody, that binds to CTLA-4 and thus derepresses the T cell activation. Thus, T-cell get activated. 

2nd mechanism that Cancer cell uses to protect themselves is by making T cell functionally non-active after prolonged exposure to T cell. They do so by causing expression of PD-1 (Progamemed death 1) receptor in T cell and they them selves generate PD-1 Ligand that binds to such receptor to make T cell inactive. This in turn suppresses the effect of TCR on T cell activation. Thus, T cell remains inactive. Blockade of PD-1 or PD-1 Ligand helps T cell remain active. 

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